Juniper Cossack in the garden - features of cultivation and varieties
Among the garden conifers, many-sided junipers have become recognized favorites in the new millennium. In their ranks do not find plants with a better reputation than juniper Cossack. It is considered the most unpretentious, versatile and easy to grow species for a reason. Hardy and undemanding, Cossack junipers pleasantly surprise with their practical advantages and good adaptability. But to assume that they grow on their own would be a big mistake. They need good lighting and a proper fit. But a considerable selection of varieties allows you to find the right plant for any place in the garden.
- Description of juniper Cossack
- The best varieties of juniper Cossack
- Juniper Cossack in the design of the garden
- Conditions for juniper Cossack
- Juniper Cossack care
- Reproduction of juniper Cossack
Description of juniper Cossack
Junipers Cossack in nature are found throughout Eurasia. These are amazingly flexible plants in their adaptability, which can be found both in the mountains in southern Europe and in Siberia. This species is very widely represented in the flora of Asia Minor and the Caucasus.
Juniper Cossack (Juniperus sabina) - creeping, dioecious species, growing mainly in the width of coniferous shrubs. In nature, some Cossack junipers develop in the form of medium-sized bizarre tree forms with powerful, interestingly curving trunks, the bends of which can be admired endlessly.
Cossack junipers grow slowly, adding about 6-7 cm in height per year, which should be considered when buying small seedlings. The ability of Cossack junipers to form thickets, grow quickly and form dense groups due to the rooting of shoots lying on the soil allows them to be used even in projects with imitation of wildlife, in creating huge massifs and for continuous planting.
In this type of juniper, even bark is considered special. Brown, peeling unevenly, with a reddish tint, perfectly visible on old branches, it seems picturesque and emphasizes the beauty of the needles. Juniper Cossack has two types of needles: young - needle-shaped and soft, with a blue tint and a central vein and adult - scaly, dark green, with a muted olive tone.
The cones of juniper Cossack can not be called outstanding. Small, only up to 0.5 mm in length, blackish with a bluish bloom, drooping, they are almost invisible on the branches. Seeds in cones ripen by the end of autumn or the spring of next year. This species of juniper begins to bear fruit only from the age of eight.
Juniper Cossack is easily recognized by smell. Among all types of juniper, it is Cossack juniper that has the sharpest aroma. It manifests itself when rubbing and needles, and shoots. Part of the reason for this outstanding aroma is the same essential oil, which determines the status of the plant as extremely poisonous. When using Cossack juniper in the design of the garden, it is worth remembering that for pets and children this is far from the best, but one of the most dangerous species.
You can read about other types of garden junipers in our article: Junipers in the garden - types and uses.
The best varieties of juniper Cossack
In the garden culture, Cossack junipers are represented by decorative forms and varieties. All plant varieties can be conditionally divided into three groups: dwarf junipers up to half a meter high, which are as if spread out on the ground, medium-sized bush plants with a height of one to 2 m and tall slender trees with a height of about 4 m. In total, Cossack is identified from juniper more than 50 varieties, and new, mainly dwarf varieties, appear on the market quite actively.
The best dwarf varieties of Cossack juniper include:
- Arcadia - low, up to 50 cm in height, amazingly sprawling (up to 2 m in diameter) and hardy juniper, mainly with scaly small needles and a very light greenish-green color, pleasantly contrasting with most conifers. The branches are slightly raised, which enhances the feeling of density of the coating and creates the effect of lush lace. Able to endure haircut and shaping.
- "Scandia" - a flat, widespread undersized juniper, creating the illusion of a groundcover. Needle leaves with a yellowish or bluish tint give the plant a special look.
- "Buffalo" - undersized, up to 35-40 cm in height, exceeding 3 m in diameter, a variety with a very beautiful bright green color. A thick crown creates a feeling of tiering. It is considered one of the most winter-hardy junipers in the culture.
- "Broadmoor" - a beautiful male form up to 0.5 cm high with a bush diameter of up to 3.5 m, with strong, thin shoots, gray-blue color of needles, curly effect, with an amazing crown density and a very strong aroma. Tolerates pruning well.
- "Rockery Gem" - one of the most powerful dwarf forms, a constantly growing variety (thanks to shoots that are easily rooted in the soil), which, with a height of up to half a meter, can cover more than 2 square meters of the territory. Outstretched, curly, very beautiful dark green shoots look elegant, create a unique texture covering due to the fact that it seems as if all the shoots are “combed” in one direction.
- "Nana" - not such a miniature shape with short, densely spaced shoots that allow adult plants to reach a height of 80 cm. Scaly needles with a rich dark green hue look fresh even in high summer.
- "Variegata" - one of the basic decorative forms. Very compact and dense juniper. With a height of 1 m it is limited to 150 cm in diameter. It grows very slowly, shoots spread out parallel to the soil in a kind of funnel, curiously bending at the ends with arches. The whitish bark is combined with bright scales, the color of the branches is light yellow, which gives the plant a somewhat variegated effect. The plant looks quite bright against the background of ordinary junipers.
Mid-sized varieties of juniper Cossack:
- "Tamariscifolia" - compact meter juniper, in diameter always twice as high as its height. Crohn's is original, curly with ascendingly-sprouted shoots and pointed lateral branches. The color is fresh, bluish due to the white strip at the top of the needle-shaped needles.
- "Tamariscifolia New Blue" - A variety with enhanced blue color, similar in parameters to the simple variety Tamariscifolia. At a height of about 1 m in diameter, it is limited to 2 m.
- "Hicksii" - razlogy lush bushy juniper up to 130 cm high with dominant blue needle-shaped leaves.
- "Femina" - female form of juniper Cossack. A sprawling, strikingly large and constantly growing shrub with open, powerful, lush massif branches. At a height of up to 1.5 m in width, it is not limited to 3 m. The gray-red bark with dark greenish young twigs and very densely arranged scales of a dark color gives the whole plant a unique texture. This is one of the most unpleasantly smelling varieties of juniper, which is mainly used for single parties.
- "Jade" - one of the slowest growing bushy junipers with a blue, light color of needles, which stands out nicely against any background.
- "Cupressifolia" - a female form up to 50 cm high with very tender, widely spread, overlapping, rising shoots overlapping from the very base of the bush. It is considered one of the most beautiful creeping junipers with straight branches. The scales are bluish-olive, the crown seems light, and the structure of the shoots reminds of feathers. One of the best border varieties of juniper Cossack.
- "Mas" - a beautiful bushy variety, at a height of up to 2 m, forms stunningly massive bushes with a diameter of up to 5-7 m.Stretched, wide-spreading, with a beautiful pattern, twigs with a reddish bark are covered with needle, prickly, bluish-dark green needles. The variety does not grow very quickly, 10-20 cm per year in width, but this is one of the most durable plants.
Junipers Cossack above 2 m high:
- "Erecta" - a large, massive variety with ascending angles that create original diagonal shoots, thanks to which the effect of a pyramidal crown is created. Dark, marshy green color at a height of up to 2 m allows this variety to create the effect of a matte dark spot in the compositions. This variety seems to be created to contrast with rough stones.
- "Stricta" - compact and narrow shrub with a height of more than 2 m with a crown diameter of only 80 cm. The dark color perfectly emphasizes the beautiful pattern of shoots and the density of foliage.
- "Fastigiata" - a tree-like narrow-columnar form of Cossack juniper with a maximum height of 6 to 8 m. Thin, densely branching shoots with scaly dark leaves create a very dense crown.
Juniper Cossack in the design of the garden
Juniper Cossack is considered the main species of conifers to protect the soil and design areas with complex terrain - any decorative object with a slope, which you need to either beat the slopes, or protect and strengthen the soil on them. It is used to emphasize and play up the elevation difference, enhance the effect of multi-leveling, masking, continuous coatings.
Juniper Cossack looks good both in solo parts and in group plantings. It can be grown with evergreen species and other conifers, and in the company of deciduous bushes and trees. There are no stylistic restrictions on its use. Juniper Cossack is good in a natural style, suitable for regular gardens, can be used in a mixed design.
This juniper is one of the most spectacular in combination with decorative mulching of the soil, masonry, stone chips, large boulders. Juniper Cossack can be used to emphasize the beauty of paths and paths. It is indispensable for the design of large rockeries and rock gardens.
In the design of the garden, Cossack junipers are used:
- as a border culture;
- in discounts and mixborders;
- in flower beds with conifers;
- in the front gardens;
- for the edge;
- in arrays and for continuous sites as an alternative to ground covers;
- in rockeries and rock gardens;
- in the design of reservoirs;
- for framing objects of small architecture and stairs;
- to create a tiered effect in plantings;
- as a background plant;
- to decorate the lawn.
Juniper Cossack is one of the best phytoncide species. It has a healing effect and cleans the air near recreation areas and terraces, improves the overall environmental situation on the site.
Growing conditions for juniper Cossack
Advantages of the purely "practical" characteristics of Cossack juniper cannot be admired. This type of juniper is considered both the most winter-hardy and drought-resistant coniferous; it tolerates even the most polluted industrial conditions, the unpretentiousness of which can only be envied.
Junipers Cossack - photophilous plants. They feel good in sunny areas and in diffuse lighting. Most varieties are partially shade tolerant, can grow in partial shade. The stronger the shading, the more loose the plant becomes. When choosing a place for Cossack juniper, it is worth considering its soil-protecting abilities to strengthen the slopes and prevent the most “problematic” garden plots from collapsing. For this type of juniper, slopes, slopes, edges, gardens with a difficult topography are considered ideal.
Almost any soil is suitable for juniper Cossack. The only thing this plant does not tolerate is dampness, stagnation of water and flooding. He can take root in the usual high-quality garden soil, and can settle in the dry poor. The highest growth rates are characteristic on moderately nutrient soils. The best are water-permeable, loose and light soils. It responds well to rocky ground. Soil reaction is important for juniper Cossack, the plant prefers neutral and slightly acidic soils. The acceptable pH range for this species is from 4.0 to 7.0.
It is advisable to improve the soil for the Cossack junipers at least 3-4 weeks before planting. Correction of the reaction with acidifiers or lime is carried out depending on the nature of the soil, but the application of organic and full mineral fertilizers, peat, replacement of depleted soil with a fresh mixture of turf and leafy soil will create conditions for this plant for decades.
Planting Juniper Cossack
The optimal planting dates for juniper Cossack is considered to be spring, before the start of growth and vegetation, or the beginning of autumn (from the third decade of August to the end of September). For Cossack junipers with a closed root system, planting can be carried out at any time from early spring to mid-autumn. Spring for regions with harsh winters is preferable, because this way the plant will take root better and fully adapt to the first winter.
For this type of juniper, planting is carried out according to the standard scheme for all junipers. Planting pits should be large, with a volume of 2-3 times the volume of the rhizome of the seedling. It is preferable to lay drainage at the bottom of the landing pits.
The distance when planting seedlings of Cossack juniper is at least 50 cm. When grown in dense massif or border, from 60 to 70 cm, in groups from 1 m.
Cossack juniper seedlings are set in planting pits on mounds of loose soil. It is advisable to plant a plant without destroying an earthen coma, setting it at the same depth. If seedlings with bare roots, they are very carefully spread horizontally, the plant is carefully covered with sand, and then fill the planting hole with soil. When installing the seedling, you need to ensure that the root neck remains unfilled, open. After filling the planting pit with a substrate, it is slightly tamped and a planting hole for irrigation is created.
Planting complete abundant watering. For this species, it is desirable to create a protective mulching from the bark or sawdust immediately. At the same time, mulching is not created at the base of the bush, leaving the root neck open.
Like all junipers, Cossacks tolerate a transplant very poorly. It is necessary to carefully select new places, observing the orientation of the plant in relation to the cardinal points. Six months before the proposed change of place, bushes are dug around the perimeter of the crown, focusing on the extreme branches. Carry a plant with a whole earthen lump, trying to avoid any damage to the rhizome. Transplanted plants need more thorough care with frequent spraying and prophylactic treatment with fungicide solutions.
Juniper Cossack care
This is one of the most unassuming conifers. Watering is usually needed for newly planted plants and in very severe drought. This type of juniper needs deep but rare watering: 2-3 watering per summer is enough. For one bush, use 2-3 buckets of water. Cossack juniper needs to be watered gently, without soaking the shoots. During the summer, the plant can be sprayed using fine nozzles and performing these procedures in the evenings. In hot, dry periods, spraying is carried out weekly.
The rest of the care comes down to just a few procedures:
- to remove dry or damaged shoots;
- loosening the soil;
- weeding or updating the mulch from the bark or sawdust (the mulch should not be “brought” close to the root neck);
- to top dressing from the 3rd to 4th year after planting, once a year, in April-May - the full portion of complex mineral fertilizers recommended by the manufacturer or special fertilizers for junipers;
- to acidifying top dressing of soil, prone to alkalization (and vice versa - top dressing for very acidic soil).
If the juniper is planted in borders or hedges, used in the design for a regular style, then it can be trimmed on adult plants. Pruning on juniper Cossack can be done in April or in August-September. It is possible to trim on this type of juniper no more than 20% of young growth, Skeletal branches are cut off only when they dry out or are seriously damaged. For the formation of plants, you can use the method of plucking the tops of young shoots in order to thicken the crown.
Young seedlings and only rooted branches in autumn need protective mulching. If the bushes were planted in September, it is better to create a layer of 5-6 cm around the base of the plants (for newly planted or transplanted junipers).
This type of juniper rarely gets sick, but on it in a neglected state, pear rust can be found. The disease is controlled by the use of fungicides.
Reproduction of juniper Cossack
This type of juniper can be grown from seeds, and by cuttings, and rooting layering. It is believed that Cossack juniper is easiest to propagate.
To root the layering, young, lower twigs located on the periphery of the bushes are chosen. At the point of contact with the ground, the twig is cut vertically. Shoots are fixed in the soil and spud, moistening the rooting site in a drought to accelerate the reproduction process. In general, rooting of layering takes about six months. Many junipers grow due to independently rooted branches. Such a natural growth can be used as separate plants, cutting and digging them from the mother bush.
Winter and summer cuttings of Cossack juniper root quite simply. The rooting rate is 65% even without treatment with growth stimulants (corresponding soaking in drugs that accelerate rooting can increase this indicator to almost 75%). Cuttings are cut in April or August, and for summer cuttings they wait until the lower part of the annual growth is lignified.
Cuttings are not cut, but torn off with the heel, carefully, without allowing the bark to separate, peel it up to 5-10 mm in length and remove all branches from the lower 6-7 cm branches. Cuttings are planted to a depth of 5-7 cm, under a slope. Rooting is best done on separate beds, in light fertile soil or on raised beds, creating a greenhouse or greenhouse on top.
Cuttings are watered daily, regularly airing shelters. For the first winter, the cuttings are tempered from September or October, additionally protecting with a thick layer of mulch from sawdust or bark. It is possible to transplant grafted junipers only in the autumn of the second year.
Non-varietal junipers or those plants that have no need and desire to preserve varietal characters are propagated by seeds. The seeds of juniper Cossack quickly lose their germination. They are traditionally sown in the spring, after stratification, or before winter immediately on seedling beds. In the first option, the crops are carried out in boxes, which are then dug into the soil in the garden for processing with cold. When sowing directly to the planting bed, mulch with bark or sawdust. Without stratification, you can wait for seedlings only after a year, but such plants develop much faster in the first years.